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May 20, 2015

Lesser-known features of afl-fuzz

AFL is designed to be simple to use, but there are quite a few advanced, time-saving features that may be easy to overlook. So, here are several useful tricks that aren't covered in README:

  • Test case postprocessing: need to fix up checksums or length fields in a particular file format? AFL supports modular postprocessors that can take care of this for you. See experimental/post_library/ for sample code and other tips.

  • Deferred forkserver: stuck with a binary that initializes a lot of stuff before actually getting to the input data? When using clang, you can avoid this CPU overhead by instructing AFL to clone the process from an already-initialized image. It's simpler than it sounds - have a look at llvm_mode/README.llvm for advice.

  • Helpful stats: in addition to using afl-plot to generate pretty progress graphs, you can also directly parse <out_dir>/fuzzer_stats for machine-readable statistics on any background tasks. The afl-whatsup script is a simple demo of that.

  • Faster resume: if you don't care about detecting non-deterministic behavior in tested binaries, set AFL_NO_VAR_CHECK=1 before resuming afl-fuzz jobs. It can speed things up by a factor of ten. While you're at it, be sure to see docs/perf_tips.txt for other performance tips.

  • Heterogeneous parallelization: the parallelization mechanism described in docs/parallel_fuzzing.txt can be very easily used to co-fuzz several different parsers using a shared corpus, or to seamlessly couple afl-fuzz to any other guided tools - say, symbolic execution frameworks.

  • Third-party tools: have a look at docs/sister_projects.txt for a collection of third-party tools that help you manage multiple instances of AFL, simplify crash triage, allow you to fuzz network servers or clients, and add support for languages such as Python or Go.

  • Minimizing stuff: when you have a crashing test case, afl-tmin will work even with non-instrumented binaries - so you can use it to shrink and simplify almost anything, even if it has nothing to do with AFL.


May 17, 2015

Oh, the places you won't go: Polonia in the United States

[ This is a third entry in a short series of articles about Poland. To start from the beginning, click here. ]

Naming the largest diasporas in the United States may seem like an easy task. For one, we have the deeply-assimilated families of German, Irish, Italian, and British immigrants. There is also a large Mexican community, unique for having a much higher percentage of members who were foreign-born.

Most people would venture a guess that India or China should come next; some may also suggest France, Denmark, or the Netherlands. They would be all wrong: the next spot on the list belongs to the massive Polish diaspora, estimated to be almost ten million strong.

Given its sheer size, the cultural influences of the Polish-American community are uncharacteristically subdued. There are precious few Poland-originating holiday traditions or ethnic foods. Outside a couple rapidly shrinking enclaves such as Avondale in Chicago or Greenpoint in New York City, you are unlikely to bump into posh Polish diners, pricey grocery stores, or flamboyant street parades. Children born to Polish immigrants in the US are seldom taught to read or write in their parents' language - and will probably know very little about their familial lineage or common ancestry.

Perhaps there just aren't that many bits of Polish culture to build on against the backdrop of Germanic, British, Italian, and Dutch influences that shaped the American life. Much like its German counterpart, the traditional Polish cuisine is obsessed chiefly with potatoes and meat. Today, we take pride in our pączki, but when pressed, we will sooner or later confess that they are just doughnuts by some other name. We can offer you some pierogi, but they will truly impress you only if you never had any ravioli or tortellini. We can also hook you up with some sausage, sauerkraut, pickles, ribs, or beer. On your way out, take a bite of our cheesecake or apple pie.

The holiday traditions run into the same challenge, perhaps with the exception of the infamous but niche Dyngus Day. The most commonly observed practice is that in line with much of Central Europe, Polish children may get their gifts in the evening on Christmas Eve, not in the morning on Christmas Day. Our traditional clothing looks distinctive, but it is ornate and archaic, making it compare unfavorably with the beautiful simplicity of wearing green on St. Patrick's Day, or getting hammered in suspenders come Oktoberfest.

Humor aside, a more powerful clue to the invisibility of the Polish diaspora may lie in its very history. In the twentieth century, the immigrants from Poland ended up occupying three isolated social strata, with relatively few opportunities for working together and developing any form of a shared cultural identity.

The first and most populous stratum of contemporary immigration were the common folk, displaced by the horrors of the war and the crippling poverty that followed under communist rule. Many of them worked menial jobs, spoke little or no English, and clustered around many of the traditionally Polish enclaves that offered them a degree of familiarity and support. For many years, they and their children faced blatant discrimination, epitomized by the popular "Polish jokes" in the 1960s and 1970s. The demeaning stereotypes that followed them everywhere prompted many Poles to adopt Americanized names, intermarry, and keep their origins a private affair.

The second stratum were the dissidents and the disillusioned intellectuals leaving Poland to escape the dysfunctional regime. Usually better-educated and more confident, they helped build the first proper Polish-American institutions, including local newspapers, community organizations, churches, shipping and travel companies, or banks. The members of this group felt much stronger national identity and perceived themselves as the guarantors of Polish interests abroad. With the fall of communism in Europe, many of them were incredulous that the former dignitaries were allowed to walk free and play a role in business and politics - a sentiment that still shapes their political views.

The big change in immigration trends came with the accession of Poland to the European Union. The unhappy and the disenfranchised would now overwhelmingly favor moving to Germany or to the UK, where they could take up residence without having to deal with restrictive immigration laws. The remaining US-bound migration shifted toward skilled, university-trained engineers and IT workers, many of whom gravitated toward tech hubs such as SF Bay Area, Seattle, or NYC. Having been born in the 1970s and 1980s, most of them remembered Poland as a thriving capitalist democracy; they were driven not by despair, but by the prospects of better pay or more interesting work.

All this nuance is easily lost on the people back home. Many of the left-wing and centrist pundits in Poland demonize the expats in hopes of mobilizing the more moderate domestic electorate. They paint a picture of a frighteningly powerful voting block that will prop up any fringe, conservative candidate, as long as they promise to rid Polish politics of the Soviet sleeper agents and other increasingly fictitious communist legacy.

Of course, for most part, such reputation is bunk; although a good percentage of Polish-Americans are very distrustful of left-leaning politicians in their country of origin, only a tiny percentage of them ever turns up to actually cast a ballot, and their overall influence on the results of Polish elections is slim. Contrary to how they are perceived, they also do not blindly cling on to social conservatism; in American elections, they usually vote for Democrats.

That said, repeated over and over again, the catchy narrative about dimwitted compatriots can take a life of its own. Several weeks ago, Longin Pastusiak, an eminent Polish publicist and polician, penned a piece characterizing Polish-Americans as simpletons who only have a very shallow appreciation for the Polish heritage and who meekly submit to the supposedly powerful influences of the Roman Catholic church. He is not alone in his views; many go even further and call for the diaspora's voting rights to be taken away.

Having overcome discrimination in the States only to face bureaucratic hurdles and prejudiced, vitriolic nonsense back home, it's no wonder that most of the Polish immigrants just want to blend in and move on. In the long haul, it's probably a big loss.

Crowds at Polish Days in San Francisco (2010)

May 13, 2015

Oh, the places you won't go: The politics of Poland

[ This is a second entry in a short series of articles about Poland. You probably want to read this one first. ]

Growing up in Poland in the 90s, I never cared much for politics. Back then, you wouldn't want to get overly attached to any political movement anyway: when a country of 38 million emerges from half a century of communist rule, you know there will be some kinks to iron out.

Sitting on the sidelines, I saw the views of others solidified by what seemed like happenstance. My mother, a promising white-collar worker cast aside by the new reality, leaned sharply to the left; she would sometimes wax lyrical about the good old days of socialism. My wife's father, a one-time Party member turned opposition activist, found himself playing a role for the increasingly polarizing right. My aunt, a mild-mannered professor of ethics, rose to prominence in the liberal Warsaw elites - and became one of the most outspoken voices of feminism and anticlericalism in the country. She had an uneasy but fruitful relationship with the centrist movement.

At the turn of the twentieth century, no matter which side you took, keeping up with the political landscape must have been a full-time job. The bitterly divided communist-era dissident circles splintered into dozens of ephemeral movements, with many familiar faces gravitating toward two camps: the economically liberal centrist party that flirted with the teachings of Margaret Thatcher; and the Christian nationalist movement that somewhat confusingly co-opted the notions of social solidarity with the underprivileged, but served that dish with a side dish of social conservatism and a vaguely suspicious attitude toward the EU.

On the other side of the political spectrum, many of the former Party dignitaries joined forces and reinvented themselves as modern-day, pro-European social democrats. Despite the branding, the post-communist camp adopted a set of conservative economic policies seldom distinguishable from the direction taken by the centrist bloc. They brandished secular, progressive social attitudes - but in a deeply-religious country where catechesis has a largely uncontested place in public schools, they never dared to experiment with them to any real extent.

In many ways, I found it easier to pinpoint what these political movements had in common, not what set them apart. Their old-school leaders, by and large raised and educated in the communist era, had little experience with good governance or true statesmanship. Looking back at it, I think that the dissident camp was driven to some extent by an innate sense of entitlement to the spoils of overthrowing the communist rule. Their years at the helm were punctuated by unsportsmanlike cronyism, by shady deals around the sale of state-owned enterprises, and by attempts to cling on to power by entering absurd and ultimately self-destructive alliances with populist agrarian or nationalist movements.

The former communists played a different card. They saw themselves as the qualified, level-headed alternative to the argumentative and erratic right. They nurtured an image of proven leaders, even if their experience amounted to running a dysfunctional Soviet satellite state into the ground and then skillfully changing their views. For many years, they fared well in elections, but eventually, the mainstream left ended with a bang: the boldest of the many political scandals in the 2000s - afera Rywina - exposed an attempt to extort $5M from a newspaper publisher in exchange for striking down an antitrust provision in the proposed Polish media law.

Many stable democracies can afford a period of government dysfunction. For a time, this was certainly true for Poland: every modern-day democratic government to date had enough common sense to keep pushing for the integration with NATO and the European Union, worked to strike down or at least superficially modernize many of the communist-era laws, and never refused a penny of foreign aid. The unstoppable influx of capital did the rest, ushering a period of unprecedented stability and growth. The cracks would show only when you interacted with the state bureaucracy: with many levels of government permeated by centrally-appointed and disinterested ruling-party loyalists, getting a pothole fixed or a stop sign installed could very well prove to be an insurmountable task.

In some ways, that period of insensitivity to bad governance may be coming to an end. Driven away by a decade of stagnant wages coupled with the rapidly growing costs of living, some 2-3 million mostly young Poles decided to leave the country and seek a better life in the UK, in Germany, and in other parts of the EU. This, combined with sub-replacement fertility rates, must have put tremendous strain on the already-inadequate social security system - a safety net where the net retirement benefits hover somewhere around $400 a month.

In the most recent presidential elections in Poland, the centrist incumbent, Bronisław Komorowski, was so sure of his victory that he shunned televised debate. The voters not only turned up in droves to give his conservative opponent a healthy lead, but some 20% of them opted for a fringe anti-establishment candidate - a former punk rock singer with a knack for catchy lyrics but no experience in politics. The future is unknowable, but in the runoff elections, the punk rock aficionados are unlikely to vote for status quo.

Many of the moral authorities in Poland share the same dissident roots with the current president and are sympathetic to Mr. Komorowski's plight. One professor of political sciences prayed for the "radicalized youth" to leave the country, apparently unaware of how radical and divisive his own words may sound. The incumbent president was quick to note that he always supported the few scattered policy proposals that can be attributed to the anti-establishment candidate. He went on to meet with the voters and rebuked a young person asking how to get by on $550 a month. The president's answer: get a loan or find a better job.

[ For the next article in the series, click here. ]

April 14, 2015

Finding bugs in SQLite, the easy way

SQLite is probably the most popular embedded database in use today; it is also known for being exceptionally well-tested and robust. In contrast to traditional SQL solutions, it does not rely on the usual network-based client-server architecture and does not employ a complex ACL model; this simplicity makes it comparatively safe.

At the same time, because of its versatility, SQLite sometimes finds use as the mechanism behind SQL-style query APIs that are exposed between privileged execution contexts and less-trusted code. For an example, look no further than the WebDB / WebSQL mechanism available in some browsers; in this setting, any vulnerabilities in the SQLite parser can open up the platform to attacks.

With this in mind, I decided to take SQLite for a spin with - you guessed it - afl-fuzz. As discussed some time ago, languages such as SQL tend to be difficult to stress-test in a fully automated manner: without an intricate model of the underlying grammar, random mutations are unlikely to generate anything but trivially broken statements. That said, afl-fuzz can usually leverage the injected instrumentation to sort out the grammar on its own. All I needed to get it started is a basic dictionary; for that, I took about 5 minutes to extract a list of reserved keywords from the SQLite docs (now included with the fuzzer as testcases/_extras/sql/). Next, I seeded the fuzzer with a single test case:

create table t1(one smallint);
insert into t1 values(1);
select * from t1;

This approach netted a decent number of interesting finds, some of which were mentioned in an earlier blog post that first introduced the dictionary feature. But when looking at the upstream fixes for the initial batch, I had a sudden moment of clarity and recalled that the developers of SQLite maintained a remarkably well-structured and comprehensive suite of hand-written test cases in their repository.

I figured that this body of working SQL statements may be a much better foundation for the fuzzer to build on, compared to my naive query - so I grepped the test cases out, split them into files, culled the resulting corpus with afl-cmin, and trimmed the inputs with afl-tmin. After a short while, I had around 550 files, averaging around 220 bytes each. I used them as a starting point for another run of afl-fuzz.

This configuration very quickly yielded a fair number of additional, unique fault conditions, ranging from NULL pointer dereferences, to memory fenceposts visible only under ASAN or Valgrind, to pretty straightforward uses of uninitialized pointers (link), bogus calls to free() (link), heap buffer overflows (link), and even stack-based ones (link). The resulting collection of 22 crashing test cases is included with the fuzzer in docs/vuln_samples/sqlite_*. They include some fairly ornate minimized inputs, say:

INSERT INTO t0(docid,x)VALUES(-1E0,'0(o');
SELECT docid FROM t0 WHERE t0 MATCH'"0*o"';

All in all, it's a pretty good return on investment for about 30 minutes of actual work - especially for a piece of software functionally tested and previously fuzzed to such a significant extent.

PS. I was truly impressed with Richard Hipp fixing each and every of these cases within a couple of hours of sending in a report. The fixes have been incorporated in version 3.8.9 of SQLite and have been public for a while, but there was no upstream advisory; depending on your use case, you may want to update soon.

March 30, 2015

On journeys

- 1 -

Poland is an ancient country whose history is deeply intertwined with that of the western civilization. In its glory days, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth sprawled across vast expanses of land in central Europe, from Black Sea to Baltic Sea. But over the past two centuries, it suffered a series of military defeats and political partitions at the hands of its closest neighbors: Russia, Austria, Prussia, and - later - Germany.

After more than a hundred years of foreign rule, Poland re-emerged as an independent state in 1918, only to face the armies of Nazi Germany at the onset of World War II. With Poland's European allies reneging on their earlier military guarantees, the fierce fighting left the country in ruins. Some six million people have died within its borders - more than ten times the death toll in France or in the UK. Warsaw was reduced to a sea of rubble, with perhaps one in ten buildings still standing by the end of the war.

With the collapse of the Third Reich, the attendees of the Yalta Conference decided the new order of the post-war Europe. At Stalin's behest, Poland and its neighboring countries were placed under Soviet political and military control, forming what has become known as the Eastern Bloc.

Over the next several decades, the Soviet satellite states experienced widespread repression and economic decline. But weakened by the expense of the Cold War, the communist chokehold on the region eventually began to wane. In Poland, the introduction of martial law in 1981 could not put an end to sweeping labor unrest. Narrowly dodging the specter of Soviet intervention, the country regained its independence in 1989 and elected its first democratic government; many other Eastern Bloc countries soon followed suit.

Ever since then, Poland has enjoyed a period of unprecedented growth and has emerged as one of the more robust capitalist democracies in the region. In just two decades, it shed many of its backwardly, state-run heavy industries and adopted a modern, service-oriented economy. But the effects of the devastating war and the lost decades under communist rule still linger on - whether you look at the country's infrastructure, at its socrealist cityscapes, at its political traditions, or at the depressingly low median wage.

When thinking about the American involvement in the Cold War, people around the world may recall Vietnam, Bay of Pigs, or the proxy wars fought in the Middle East. But in Poland and many of its neighboring states, the picture you remember the most is the fall of the Berlin Wall.

- 2 -

I was born in Warsaw in the winter of 1981, at the onset of martial law, with armored vehicles rolling onto Polish streets. My mother, like many of her generation, moved to the capital in the sixties as a part of an effort to rebuild and repopulate the war-torn city. My grandma would tell eerie stories of Germans and Soviets marching through their home village somewhere in the west. I liked listening to the stories; almost every family in Poland had some to tell.

I did not get to know my father. I knew his name; he was a noted cinematographer who worked on big-ticket productions back in the day. He left my mother when I was very young and never showed interest in staying in touch. He had a wife and other children, so it might have been that.

Compared to him, mom hasn't done well for herself. We ended up in social housing in one of the worst parts of the city, on the right bank of the Vistula river. My early memories from school are that of classmates sniffing glue from crumpled grocery bags. I remember my family waiting in lines for rationed toilet paper and meat. As a kid, you don't think about it much.

The fall of communism came suddenly. I have a memory of grandma listening to broadcasts from Radio Free Europe, but I did not understand what they were all about. I remember my family cheering one afternoon, transfixed to a black-and-white TV screen. I recall my Russian language class morphing into English; I had my first taste of bananas and grapefruits. There is the image of the monument of Feliks Dzierżyński coming down. I remember being able to go to a better school on the other side of Warsaw - and getting mugged many times on the way.

The transformation brought great wealth to some, but many others have struggled to find their place in the fledgling and sometimes ruthless capitalist economy. Well-educated and well read, my mom ended up in the latter pack, at times barely making ends meet. I think she was in part a victim of circumstance, and in part a slave to way of thinking that did not permit the possibility of taking chances or pursuing happiness.

- 3 -

Mother always frowned upon popular culture, seeing it as unworthy of an educated mind. For a time, she insisted that I only listen to classical music. She angrily shunned video games, comic books, and cartoons. I think she perceived technology as trivia; the only field of science she held in high regard was abstract mathematics, perhaps for its detachment from the mundane world. She hoped that I would learn Latin, a language she could read and write; that I would practice drawing and painting; or that I would read more of the classics of modernist literature.

Of course, I did almost none of that. I hid my grunge rock tapes between Tchaikovsky, listened to the radio under the sheets, and watched the reruns of The A-Team while waiting for her to come back from work. I liked electronics and chemistry a lot more than math. And when I laid my hands on my first computer - an 8-bit relic of British engineering from 1982 - I soon knew that these machines, in their incredible complexity and flexibility, were what I wanted to spend my time on.

I suspected I could be a competent programmer, but never had enough faith in my skill. Yet, in learning about computers, I realized that I had a knack for understanding complex systems and poking holes in how they work. With a couple of friends, we joined the nascent information security community in Europe, comparing notes on mailing lists. Before long, we were taking on serious consulting projects for banks and the government - usually on weekends and after school, but sometimes skipping a class or two. Well, sometimes more than that.

All of the sudden, I was facing an odd choice. I could stop, stay in school and try to get a degree - going back every night to a cramped apartment, my mom sleeping on a folding bed in the kitchen, my personal space limited to a bare futon and a tiny desk. Or, I could seize the moment and try to make it on my own, without hoping that one day, my family would be able to give me a head start.

I moved out, dropped out of school, and took on a full-time job. It paid somewhere around $12,000 a year - a pittance anywhere west of the border, but a solid wage in Poland even today. Not much later, I was making two times as much, about the upper end of what one could hope for in this line of work. I promised myself to keep taking courses after hours, but I wasn't good at sticking to the plan. I moved in with my girlfriend, and at the age of 19, I felt for the first time that things were going to be all right.

- 4 -

Growing up in Europe, you get used to the barrage of low-brow swipes taken at the United States. Your local news will never pass up the opportunity to snicker about the advances of creationism somewhere in Kentucky. You can stay tuned for a panel of experts telling you about the vastly inferior schools, the medieval justice system, and the striking social inequality on the other side of the pond. But deep down inside, no matter how smug the critics are, or how seemingly convincing their arguments, the American culture still draws you in.

My moment of truth came in the summer of 2000. A company from Boston asked me if I'd like to talk about a position on their research team; I looked at the five-digit figure and could not believe my luck. Moving to the US was an unreasonable risk for a kid who could barely speak English and had no safety net to fall back to. But that did not matter: I knew I had no prospects of financial independence in Poland - and besides, I simply needed to experience the New World through my own eyes.

Of course, even with a job offer in hand, getting into the United States is not an easy task. An engineering degree and a willing employer opens up a straightforward path; it is simple enough that some companies would abuse the process to source cheap labor for menial, low-level jobs. With a visa tied to the petitioning company, such captive employees could not seek better wages or more rewarding work.

But without a degree, the options shrink drastically. For me, the only route would be a seldom-granted visa reserved for extraordinary skill - meant for the recipients of the Nobel Prize and other folks who truly stand out in their field of expertise. The attorneys looked over my publication record, citations, and the supporting letters from other well-known people in the field. Especially given my age, they thought we had a good shot. A few stressful months later, it turned out that they were right.

On the week of my twentieth birthday, I packed two suitcases and boarded a plane to Boston. My girlfriend joined me, miraculously securing a scholarship at a local university to continue her physics degree; her father helped her with some of the costs. We had no idea what we were doing; we had perhaps few hundred bucks on us, enough to get us through the first couple of days. Four thousand miles away from our place of birth, we were starting a brand new life.

- 5 -

The cultural shock gets you, but not in the sense you imagine. You expect big contrasts, a single eye-opening day to remember for the rest of your life. But driving down a highway in the middle of a New England winter, I couldn't believe how ordinary the world looked: just trees, boxy buildings, and pavements blanketed with dirty snow.

Instead of a moment of awe, you drown in a sea of small, inconsequential things, draining your energy and making you feel helpless and lost. It's how you turn on the shower; it's where you can find a grocery store; it's what they meant by that incessant "paper or plastic" question at the checkout line. It's how you get a mailbox key, how you make international calls, it's how you pay your bills with a check. It's the rules at the roundabout, it's your social security number, it's picking the right toll lane, it's getting your laundry done. It's setting up a dial-up account and finding the food you like in the sea of unfamiliar brands. It's doing all this without Google Maps or a Facebook group to connect with other expats nearby.

The other thing you don't expect is losing touch with your old friends; you can call or e-mail them every day, but your social frames of reference begin to drift apart, leaving less and less to talk about. The acquaintances you make in the office will probably never replace the folks you grew up with. We managed, but we weren't prepared for that.

- 6 -

In the summer, we had friends from Poland staying over for a couple of weeks. By the end of their trip, they asked to visit New York City one more time; we liked the Big Apple, so we took them on a familiar ride down I-90. One of them went to see the top of World Trade Center; the rest of us just walked around, grabbing something to eat before we all headed back. A few days later, we were all standing in front of a TV, watching September 11 unfold in real time.

We felt horror and outrage. But when we roamed the unsettlingly quiet streets of Boston, greeted by flags and cardboard signs urging American drivers to honk, we understood that we were strangers a long way from home - and that our future in this country hanged in the balance more than we would have thought.

Permanent residency is a status that gives a foreigner the right to live in the US and do almost anything they please - change jobs, start a business, or live off one's savings all the same. For many immigrants, the pursuit of this privilege can take a decade or more; for some others, it stays forever out of reach, forcing them to abandon the country in a matter of days as their visas expire or companies fold. With my O-1 visa, I always counted myself among the lucky ones. Sure, it tied me to an employer, but I figured that sorting it out wouldn't be a big deal.

That proved to be a mistake. In the wake of 9/11, an agency known as Immigration and Naturalization Services was being dismantled and replaced by a division within the Department of Homeland Security. My own seemingly straightforward immigration petition ended up somewhere in the bureaucratic vacuum that formed in between the two administrative bodies. I waited patiently, watching the deepening market slump, and seeing my employer's prospects get dimmer and dimmer every month. I was ready for the inevitable, with other offers in hand, prepared to make my move perhaps the very first moment I could. But the paperwork just would not come through. With the Boston office finally shutting down, we packed our bags and booked flights. We faced the painful admission that for three years, we chased nothing but a pipe dream. The only thing we had to show for it were two adopted cats, now sitting frightened somewhere in the cargo hold.

The now-worthless approval came through two months later; the lawyers, cheerful as ever, were happy to send me a scan. The hollowed-out remnants of my former employer were eventually bought by Symantec - the very place from where I had my backup offer in hand.

- 7 -

In a way, Europe's obsession with America's flaws made it easier to come home without ever explaining how the adventure really played out. When asked, I could just wing it: a mention of the death penalty or permissive gun laws would always get you a knowing nod, allowing the conversation to move on.

Playing to other people's preconceptions takes little effort; lying to yourself calls for more skill. It doesn't help that when you come back after three years away from home, you notice all the small things you simply used to tune out. The dilapidated road from the airport; the drab buildings on the other side of the river; the uneven pavements littered with dog poop; the dirty walls at my mother's place, with barely any space to turn. You can live with it, of course - but it's a reminder that you settled for less, and it's a sensation that follows you every step of the way.

But more than the sights, I couldn't forgive myself something else: that I was coming back home with just loose change in my pocket. There are some things that a failed communist state won't teach you, and personal finance is one of them; I always looked at money just as a reward for work, something you get to spend to brighten your day. The indulgences were never extravagant: perhaps I would take the cab more often, or have take-out every day. But no matter how much I made, I kept living paycheck-to-paycheck - the only way I knew, the way our family always did.

- 8 -

With a three-year stint in the US on your resume, you don't have a hard time finding a job in Poland. You face the music in a different way. I ended up with a salary around a fourth of what I used to make in Massachusetts, but I simply decided not to think about it much. I wanted to settle down, work on interesting projects, marry my girlfriend, have a child. I started doing consulting work whenever I could, setting almost all the proceeds aside.

After four years with T-Mobile in Poland, I had enough saved to get us through a year or so - and in a way, it changed the way I looked at my work. Being able to take on ambitious challenges and learn new things started to matter more than jumping ships for a modest salary bump. Burned by the folly of pursuing riches in a foreign land, I put a premium on boring professional growth.

Comically, all this introspection made me realize that from where I stood, I had almost nowhere left to go. Sure, Poland had telcos, refineries, banks - but they all consumed the technologies developed elsewhere, shipped here in a shrink-wrapped box; as far as their IT went, you could hardly tell the companies apart. To be a part of the cutting edge, you had to pack your bags, book a flight, and take a jump into the unknown. I sure as heck wasn't ready for that again.

And then, out of the blue, Google swooped in with an offer to work for them from the comfort of my home, dialing in for a videoconference every now and then. The starting pay was about the same, but I had no second thoughts. I didn't say it out loud, but deep down inside, I already knew what needed to happen next.

- 9 -

We moved back to the US in 2009, two years after taking the job, already on the hook for a good chunk of Google's product security and with the comfort of knowing where we stood. In a sense, my motive was petty: you could call it a desire to vindicate a failed adolescent dream. But in many other ways, I have grown fond of the country that shunned us once before; and I wanted our children to grow up without ever having to face the tough choices and the uncertain prospects I had to deal with in my earlier years.

This time, we knew exactly what to do: a quick stop at a grocery store on a way from the airport, followed by e-mail to our immigration folks to get the green card paperwork out the door. A bit more than half a decade later, we were standing in a theater in Campbell, reciting the Oath of Allegiance and clinging on to our new certificates of US citizenship.

The ceremony closed a long and interesting chapter in my life. But more importantly, standing in that hall with people from all over the globe made me realize that my story is not extraordinary; many of them had lived through experiences far more harrowing and captivating than mine. If anything, my tale is hard to tell apart from that of countless other immigrants from the former Eastern Bloc. By some estimates, in the US alone, the Polish diaspora is about 9 million strong.

I know that the Poland of today is not the Poland I grew up in. It's not not even the Poland I came back to in 2003; the gap to Western Europe is shrinking every single year. But I am grateful to now live in a country that welcomes more immigrants than any other place on Earth - and at the end of their journey, makes many of them them feel at home. It also makes me realize how small and misguided must be the conversations we are having about immigration - not just here, but all over the developed world.

[ For another article in s a short series about Poland, click here. ]

March 11, 2015

Another round of image bugs: PNG and JPEG XR

Today's release of MS15-024 and MS15-029 addresses two more image-related memory disclosure vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer - this time, affecting the little-known JPEG XR format supported by this browser, plus the far more familiar PNG. Similarly to the previously discussed bugs in MSIE TIFF and JPEG parsing, and to the BMP, ICO, and GIF and JPEG DHT & SOS flaws in Firefox and Chrome, these two were found with afl-fuzz. The earlier posts have more context - today, just enjoy some pretty pics, showing subsequent renderings of the same JPEG XR image:

Proof-of-concepts are here (JXR) and here (PNG). I am happy to report that Microsoft fixed them within roughly three months of the original report.

The total number of bugs squashed in this category is now ten. I have just one more multi-browser image parsing bug outstanding - but it should be an interesting one. Stay tuned.

February 10, 2015

Bi-level TIFFs and the tale of the unexpectedly early patch

Today's release of MS15-016 (CVE-2015-0061) fixes another of the series of browser memory disclosure bugs found with afl-fuzz - this time, related to the handling of bi-level (1-bpp) TIFFs in Internet Explorer (yup, MSIE displays TIFFs!). You can check out a simple proof-of-concept here, or simply enjoy this screenshot of eight subsequent renderings of the same TIFF file:

The vulnerability is conceptually similar to other previously-identified problems with GIF and JPEG handling in popular browsers (example 1, example 2), with the SOS handling bug in libjpeg, or the DHT bug in libjpeg-turbo (details here) - so I will try not to repeat the same points in this post.

Instead, I wanted to take note of what really sets this bug apart: Microsoft has addressed it in precisely 60 days, counting form my initial e-mail to the availability of a patch! This struck me as a big deal: although vulnerability research is not my full-time job, I do have a decent sample size - and I don't think I have seen this happen for any of the few dozen MSIE bugs that I reported to MSRC over the past few years. The average patch time always seemed to be closer to 6+ months - coupled with what the somewhat odd practice of withholding attribution in security bulletins and engaging in seemingly punitive PR outreach if the reporter ever went public before that.

I am very excited and hopeful that rapid patching is the new norm - and huge thanks to MSRC folks if so :-)

February 04, 2015

Symbolic execution in vuln research

There is no serious disagreement that symbolic execution has a remarkable potential for programatically detecting broad classes of security vulnerabilities in modern software. Fuzzing, in comparison, is an extremely crude tool: it's the banging-two-rocks-together way of doing business, as contrasted with brain surgery.

Because of this, it comes as no surprise that for the past decade or so, the topic of symbolic execution and related techniques has been the mainstay of almost every single self-respecting security conference around the globe. The tone of such presentations is often lofty: the slides and research papers are frequently accompanied by claims of extraordinary results and the proclamations of the imminent demise of less sophisticated tools.

Yet, despite the crippling and obvious limitations of fuzzing and the virtues of symbolic execution, there is one jarring discord: I'm fairly certain that probably around 70% of all remote code execution vulnerabilities disclosed in the past few years trace back to fairly "dumb" fuzzing tools, with the pattern showing little change over time. The remaining 30% is attributable almost exclusively to manual work - be it systematic code reviews, or just aimlessly poking the application in hopes of seeing it come apart. When you dig through public bug trackers, vendor advisories, and CVE assignments, the mark left by symbolic execution can be seen only with a magnifying glass.

This is an odd discrepancy, and one that is sometimes blamed on the practitioners being backwardly, stubborn, and ignorant. This may be true, but only to a very limited extent; ultimately, most geeks are quick to embrace the tools that serve them well. I think that the disconnect has its roots elsewhere:
  1. The code behind many of the most-cited, seminal publications on security-themed symbolic execution remains non-public; this is particularly true for Mayhem and SAGE. Implementation secrecy is fairly atypical in the security community, is usually viewed with distrust, and makes it difficult to independently evaluate, replicate, or build on top of the published results.

  2. The research often fails to fully acknowledge the limitations of the underlying methods - while seemingly being designed to work around these flaws. For example, the famed Mayhem experiment helped identify thousands of bugs, but most of them seemed to be remarkably trivial and affected only very obscure, seldom-used software packages with no significance to security. It is likely that the framework struggled with more practical issues in higher-value targets - a prospect that, especially if not addressed head-on, can lead to cynical responses and discourage further research.

  3. Any published comparisons to more established vulnerability-hunting techniques are almost always retrospective; for example, after the discovery of Heartbleed, several teams have claimed that their tools would have found the bug. But analyses that look at ways to reach an already-known fault condition are very susceptible to cognitive bias. Perhaps more importantly, it is always tempting to ask why the tools are not tasked with producing a steady stream of similarly high-impact, headline-grabbing bugs.
The uses of symbolic execution, concolic execution, static analysis, and other emerging technologies to spot substantial vulnerabilities in complex, unstructured, and non-annotated code are still in their infancy. The techniques suffer from many performance trade-offs and failure modes, and while there is no doubt that they will shape the future of infosec, thoughtful introspection will probably get us there sooner than bold claims with little or no follow-through. We need to move toward open-source frameworks, verifiable results, and solutions that work effortlessly and reliably for everyone, against almost any target. That's the domain where the traditional tools truly shine, and that's why they scale so well.

Ultimately, the key to winning the hearts and minds of practitioners is very simple: you need to show them how the proposed approach finds new, interesting bugs in the software they care about.

February 03, 2015

afl-fuzz: black-box binary fuzzing, perf improvements, and more

I had quite a few posts about afl-fuzz recently, mostly focusing on individual, newly-shipping features (say, the fork server, the crash explorer, or the grammar reconstruction logic). But this probably gets boring for people not interested in the tool, and doesn't necessarily add up to a coherent picture for those who do.

To trim down on AFL-themed posts, I decided to write down a technical summary of all the internals and maintain it as a part of the AFL home page. The document talks about quite a few different things, including:
  • The newly-added support for guided fuzzing of black-box, closed-source binaries (yes, it finally happened!),

  • Info about effector maps - a new feature that offers significant performance improvements for many types of fuzzing jobs,

  • Some hard data comparing the efficiency of evolutionary fuzzing and AFL-style instrumentation versus more traditional tools,

  • Discussion of many other details that have not been documented in depth until now - queue culling, file minimization, etc.
I'll try to show a bit more restraint with AFL-related news on this blog from now on, so if you want to stay in the loop on key developments, consider signing up for the afl-users@ mailing list.

January 27, 2015

Technical analysis of Qualys' GHOST

This morning, a leaked note from Qualys' external PR agency made us aware of GHOST. In this blog entry, our crack team of analysts examines the technical details of GHOST and makes a series of recommendations to better protect your enterprise from mishaps of this sort.

Figure 1: The logo of GHOST, courtesy of Qualys PR.

Internally, GHOST appears to be implemented as a lossy representation of a two-dimensional raster image, combining YCbCr chroma subsampling and DCT quantization techniques to achieve high compression rates; among security professionals, this technique is known as JPEG/JFIF. This compressed datastream maps to an underlying array of 8-bpp RGB pixels, arranged sequentially into a rectangular shape that is 300 pixels wide and 320 pixels high. The image is not accompanied by an embedded color profile; we must note that this poses a considerable risk that on some devices, the picture may not be rendered faithfully and that crucial information may be lost.

In addition to the compressed image data, the file also contains APP12, EXIF, and XMP sections totaling 818 bytes. This metadata tells us that the image has been created with Photoshop CC on Macintosh. Our security personnel notes that Photoshop CC is an obsolete version of the application, superseded last year by Photoshop CC 2014. In line with industry best practices and OWASP guidelines, we recommend all users to urgently upgrade their copy of Photoshop to avoid exposure to potential security risks.

The image file modification date returned by the HTTP server at is Thu, 02 Oct 2014 02:40:27 GMT (Last-Modified, link). The roughly 90-day delay between the creation of the image and the release of the advisory probably corresponds to the industry-standard period needed to test the materials with appropriate focus groups.

Removal of the metadata allows the JPEG image to be shrunk from 22,049 to 21,192 bytes (-4%) without any loss of image quality; enterprises wishing to conserve vulnerability-disclosure-related bandwidth may want to consider running jhead -purejpg to accomplish this goal.

Of course, all this mundane technical detail about JPEG images distracts us from the broader issue highlighted by the GHOST report. We're talking here about the fact that the JPEG compression is not particularly suitable for non-photographic content such as logos, especially when the graphics need to be reproduced with high fidelity or repeatedly incorporated into other work. To illustrate the ringing artifacts introduced by the lossy compression algorithm used by the JPEG file format, our investigative team prepared this enhanced visualization:

Figure 2: A critical flaw in GHOST: ringing artifacts.

Artifacts aside, our research has conclusively showed that the JPEG formats offers an inferior compression rate compared to some of the alternatives. In particular, when converted to a 12-color PNG and processed with pngcrush, the same image can be shrunk to 4,229 bytes (-80%):

Figure 3: Optimized GHOST after conversion to PNG.

PS. Tavis also points out that ">_" is not a standard unix shell prompt. We believe that such design errors can be automatically prevented with commercially-available static logo analysis tools.

PPS. On a more serious note, check out this message to get a sense of the risk your server may be at. Either way, it's smart to upgrade.

January 24, 2015

Looking back at three months of afl-fuzz

I originally released afl-fuzz, a security-oriented fuzzer driven by a simple genetic algorithm, somewhere in November of 2013. Back then, it was simply another take on an idea I first toyed with in 2007, inspired in large part by the work on fuzzer corpus distillation done by Tavis Ormandy. It almost ended up in the dustbin of history: early on, the project had many shortcomings, and I was swamped with other work - so I ended up not announcing it properly and not touching it for almost a year.

But then, when the "Shellshock" vulnerability came by in October 2014, and we were increasingly suspicious about the original patch, I decided to dust off an early incarnation of afl-fuzz and take it for a quick spin. I was actually pretty surprised at how good it turned out to be at navigating bash syntax - and how quickly it found additional bugs that weren't predicated simply on flipping random bits, but on being able to synthesize the syntax of the underlying files. A couple of additional tests confirmed that the underlying approach was probably worth more than I have given it credit for.

And so, over the past few months, afl-fuzz has seen almost constant development, with several releases every week. The changes range from sweeping performance and fuzzing strategy improvements, to a clever fork server design proposed by Jann Horn, to visualization capabilities sketched out by Michael Rash, to a crash exploration mode to help in impact analysis, to robust test case and corpus minimization tools (afl-tmin, afl-cmin), to spiffy grammar-aware modes that lessen the need for format-specific tools, to support for *BSD systems, MacOS X, Solaris... and much more.

Since then, afl-fuzz helped squash hundreds of bugs, in part due to a community of folks who found the tool to be fun to use. For example, it has been used by OpenBSD developers to beef up anything from pfctl, to tcpdump, to rcs. Jodie Cunningham relied on it to identify dozens of distinct issues in ImageMagick (GraphicsMagick team had kind words for the tool, too). LLVM developers run it on a corpus of C files to get rid of a sizable pile of compiler issues. Jakub Wilk has worked tirelessly to squash numerous vulnerabilities in the Debian tree. Alex Eubanks used it to find security bugs in PHP and libpng. Many other folks took on "hot" projects such as mozjpeg or libbpg, with predictable results. Out of the few dozen pending security fixes in libtiff, the vast majority likely traces back to afl-fuzz, in part thanks to the work of Tobias Ospelt, William Robinet, and Paris Zoumpouloglou.

Compared to projects such as Mayhem, I'm particularly happy that afl-fuzz has a knack for finding complex issues in relatively tough, security-relevant targets that we actually need to get in a good shape - including security holes in IJG jpeg, libjpeg-turbo, libpng, Firefox, Internet Explorer, GnuTLS, GnuPG, unzip, or file. Heck, the fuzzer even managed to find crash-only bugs in OpenSSH and multiple non-trivial crashing SQL statements in sqlite3. On a much less serious but funny note, it also triggered an somewhat embarrassing security bug in splint, a tool for, quoth, "statically checking C programs for security vulnerabilities and coding mistakes"...

All in all, I'm very happy and humbled with the success of the tool, and how many developers are just grabbing it and running it against their projects without having to spend hours to fiddle various knobs. The afl-users@ mailing list is now 120+ members strong - and I'll do my best to keep the fuzzer useful and enjoyable to play with :-) Many feature suggestions ship in a matter of days - so if you have any ideas, be sure to send them in.

(And if you haven't looked at afl-fuzz recently, give it a try!)

January 09, 2015

afl-fuzz: making up grammar with a dictionary in hand

One of the most significant limitations of afl-fuzz is that its mutation engine is syntax-blind and optimized for compact data formats, such as binary files (e.g., archives, multimedia) or terse human-readable languages (RTF, shell scripts). Any general-purpose fuzzer will have a harder time dealing with more verbose dialects, such as SQL or HTTP. You can improve your odds in a variety of ways, and the results can be surprisingly good - but ultimately, it's never easy to get from Set-Cookie: FOO=BAR to Content-Length: -1 by randomly flipping bits.

The common wisdom is that if you want to fuzz data formats with such ornate grammars, you need to build an one-off, protocol-specific mutation engine with the appropriate syntax templates baked in. Of course, writing such code isn't easy. In essence, you need to manually build a model precise enough so that the generated test cases almost always make sense to the targeted parser - but creative enough to trigger unintended behaviors in that codebase. It takes considerable experience and a fair amount of time to get it just right.

I was thinking about using afl-fuzz to reach some middle ground between the two worlds. I quickly realized that if you give the fuzzer a list of basic syntax tokens - say, the set of reserved keywords defined in the spec - the instrumentation-guided nature of the tool means that even if we just mindlessly clobber the tokens together, we will be able to distinguish between combinations that are nonsensical and ones that actually follow the rules of the underlying grammar and therefore trigger new states in the instrumented binary. By discarding that first class of inputs and refining the other, we could progressively construct more complex and meaningful syntax as we go.

Ideas are cheap, but when I implemented this one, it turned out to be a good bet. For example, I tried it against sqlite, with the fuzzer fed a collection of keywords grabbed from the project's docs (-x testcases/_extras/sql/). Equipped with this knowledge, afl-fuzz quickly spewed out a range of valid if unusual statements, such as:

select sum(1)LIMIT(select sum(1)LIMIT -1,1); select round( -1)````; select group_concat(DISTINCT+1) |1; select length(?)in( hex(1)+++1,1); select abs(+0+ hex(1)-NOT+1) t1; select DISTINCT "Y","b",(1)"Y","b",(1); select - (1)AND"a","b"; select ?1in(CURRENT_DATE,1,1); select - "a"LIMIT- /* */ /* */- /* */ /* */-1; select strftime(1, sqlite_source_id());

(It also found a couple of crashing bugs.)

All right, all right: grabbing keywords is much easier than specifying the underlying grammar, but it still takes some work. I've been wondering how to scratch that itch, too - and came up with a fairly simple algorithm that can help those who do not have the time or the inclination to construct a proper dictionary.

To explain the approach, it's useful to rely on the example of a PNG file. The PNG format uses four-byte, human-readable magic values to indicate the beginning of a section, say:

89 50 4e 47 0d 0a 1a 0a 00 00 00 0d 49 48 44 52 | .PNG........IHDR
00 00 00 20 00 00 00 20 02 03 00 00 00 0e 14 92 | ................

The algorithm in question can identify "IHDR" as a syntax token by piggybacking on top of the deterministic, sequential bit flips that are already being performed by afl-fuzz across the entire file. It works by identifying runs of bytes that satisfy a simple property: that flipping them triggers an execution path that is distinct from the product of flipping stuff in the neighboring regions, yet consistent across the entire sequence of bytes.

This signal strongly implies that touching any of the affected bytes causes the failure of an underlying atomic check, such as header.magic_value == 0xDEADBEEF or strcmp(name, "Set-Cookie"). When such a behavior is detected, the entire blob of data is added to the dictionary, to be randomly recombined with other dictionary tokens later on.

This second trick is not a substitute for a proper, hand-crafted list of keywords; for one, it will only know about the syntax tokens that were present in the input files, or could be synthesized easily. It will also not do much when pitted against optimized, tree-based parsers that do not perform atomic string comparisons. (The fuzzer itself can often clear that last obstacle anyway, but the process will be slow.)

Well, that's it. If you want to try out the new features, click here and let me know how it goes!

November 30, 2014

afl-fuzz: nobody expects CDATA sections in XML

I made a very explicit, pragmatic design decision with afl-fuzz: for performance and reliability reasons, I did not want to get into static analysis or symbolic execution to understand what the program is actually doing with the data we are feeding to it. The basic algorithm for the fuzzer can be just summed up as randomly mutating the input files, and gently nudging the process toward new state transitions discovered in the targeted binary. That discovery part is done with the help of lightweight and extremely simple instrumentation injected by the compiler.

I had a working theory that this would make the fuzzer a bit smarter than a potato, but I wasn't expecting any fireworks. So, when the algorithm managed to not only find some useful real-world bugs, but to successfully synthesize a JPEG file out of nothing, I was genuinely surprised by the outcome.

Of course, while it was an interesting result, it wasn't an impossible one. In the end, the fuzzer simply managed to wiggle its way through a long and winding sequence of conditionals that operated on individual bytes, making them well-suited for the guided brute-force approach. What seemed perfectly clear, though, is that the algorithm wouldn't be able to get past "atomic", large-search-space checks such as:

if (strcmp(header.magic_password, "h4ck3d by p1gZ")) goto terminate_now;


if (header.magic_value == 0x12345678) goto terminate_now;

This constraint made the tool less useful for properly exploring extremely verbose, human-readable formats such as HTML or JavaScript.

Some doubts started to set in when afl-fuzz effortlessly pulled out four-byte magic values and synthesized ELF files when testing programs such as objdump or file. As I later found out, this particular example is often used as a benchmark for complex static analysis or symbolic execution frameworks. But still, guessing four bytes could have been just a happy accident. With fast targets, the fuzzer can pull off billions of execs per day on a single machine, so it could have been dumb luck.

(As an aside: to deal with strings, I had this very speculative idea of special-casing memory comparison functions such as strcmp() and memcmp() by replacing them with non-optimized versions that can be instrumented easily. I have one simple demo of that principle bundled with the fuzzer in experimental/instrumented_cmp/, but I never got around to actually implementing it in the fuzzer itself.)

Anyway, nothing quite prepared me for what the recent versions were capable of doing with libxml2. I seeded the session with:

<a b="c">d</a>

...and simply used that as the input for a vanilla copy of xmllint. I was merely hoping to stress-test the very basic aspects of the parser, without getting into any higher-order features of the language. Yet, after two days on a single machine, I found this buried in test case #4641 in the output directory:

...<![<CDATA[C%Ada b="c":]]]>...

What the heck?!

As most of you probably know, CDATA is a special, differently parsed section within XML, separated from everything else by fairly complex syntax - a nine-character sequence of bytes that can't be realistically discovered by just randomly flipping bits.

The finding is actually not magic; there are two possible explanations:

  • As a recent "well, it's cheap, so let's see what happens" optimization, AFL automatically sets -O3 -funroll-loops when calling the compiler for instrumented binaries, and some of the shorter fixed-string comparisons will be actually just expanded inline. For example, if the stars align just right, strcmp(buf, "foo") may be unrolled to:
    cmpb   $0x66,0x200c32(%rip)        # 'f'
    jne    4004b6 
    cmpb   $0x6f,0x200c2a(%rip)        # 'o'
    jne    4004b6 
    cmpb   $0x6f,0x200c22(%rip)        # 'o'
    jne    4004b6 
    cmpb   $0x0,0x200c1a(%rip)         # NUL
    jne    4004b6 
    ...which, by the virtue of having a series of explicit and distinct branch points, can be readily instrumented on a per-character basis by afl-fuzz.

  • If that fails, it just so happens that some of the string comparisons in libxml2 in parser.c are done using a bunch of macros that will compile to similarly-structured code (as spotted by Ben Hawkes). This is presumably done so that the compiler can optimize this into a tree-style parser - whereas a linear sequence of strcmp() calls would lead to repeated and unnecessary comparisons of the already-examined chars.

    (Although done by hand in this particular case, the pattern is fairly common for automatically generated parsers of all sorts.)
The progression of test cases seems to support both of these possibilities:

<![C b="c">
<![CDb m="c">

I find this result a bit spooky because it's an example of the fuzzer defiantly and secretly working around one of its intentional and explicit design limitations - and definitely not something I was aiming for =)

Of course, treat this first and foremost as a novelty; there are many other circumstances where similar types of highly verbose text-based syntax would not be discoverable to afl-fuzz - or where, even if the syntax could be discovered through some special-cased shims, it would be a waste of CPU time to do it with afl-fuzz, rather than a simple syntax-aware, template-based tool.

(Coming up with an API to make template-based generators pluggable into AFL may be a good plan.)

By the way, here are some other gems from the randomly generated test cases:

<?xml version="2.666666666666666666667666666">
<?xml standalone?>

November 24, 2014

afl-fuzz: crash exploration mode

One of the most labor-intensive portions of any fuzzing project is the work needed to determine if a particular crash poses a security risk. A small minority of all fault conditions will have obvious implications; for example, attempts to write or jump to addresses that clearly come from the input file do not need any debate. But most crashes are more ambiguous: some of the most common issues are NULL pointer dereferences and reads from oddball locations outside the mapped address space. Perhaps they are a manifestation of an underlying vulnerability; or perhaps they are just harmless non-security bugs. Even if you prefer to err on the side of caution and treat them the same, the vendor may not share your view.

If you have to make the call, sifting through such crashes may require spending hours in front of a debugger - or, more likely, rejecting a good chunk of them based on not much more than a hunch. To help triage the findings in a more meaningful way, I decided to add a pretty unique and nifty feature to afl-fuzz: the brand new crash exploration mode, enabled via -C.

The idea is very simple: you take a crashing test case and give it to afl-fuzz as a starting point for the automated run. The fuzzer then uses its usual feedback mechanisms and genetic algorithms to see how far it can get within the instrumented codebase while still keeping the program in the crashing state. Mutations that stop the crash from happening are thrown away; so are the ones that do not alter the execution path in any appreciable way. The occasional mutation that makes the crash happen in a subtly different way will be kept and used to seed subsequent fuzzing rounds later on.

The beauty of this mode is that it very quickly produces a small corpus of related but somewhat different crashes that can be effortlessly compared to pretty accurately estimate the degree of control you have over the faulting address, or to figure out whether you can get past the initial out-of-bounds read by nudging it just the right way (and if the answer is yes, you probably get to see what happens next). It won't necessarily beat thorough code analysis, but it's still pretty cool: it lets you make a far more educated guess without having to put in any work.

As an admittedly trivial example, let's take a suspect but ambiguous crash in unrtf, found by afl-fuzz in its normal mode:

unrtf[7942]: segfault at 450 ip 0805062b sp bf957e60 error 4 in unrtf[8048000+1c000]

When fed to the crash explorer, the fuzzer took just several minutes to notice that by changing {\cb-44901990 in the converted RTF file to printable representations of other negative integers, it could quickly trigger faults at arbitrary addresses of its choice, corresponding mostly-linearly to the integer set:

unrtf[28809]: segfault at 88077782 ip 0805062b sp bff00210 error 4 in unrtf[8048000+1c000]
unrtf[26656]: segfault at 7271250 ip 0805062b sp bf957e60 error 4 in unrtf[8048000+1c000]

Given a bit more time, it would also almost certainly notice that choosing values within the mapped address space get it past the crashing location and permit even more fun. So, automatic exploit writing next?

November 10, 2014

Exploitation modelling matters more than we think

Our own Krzysztof Kotowicz put together a pretty neat site called the Bughunter University. The first part of the site deals with some of the most common non-qualifying issues that are reported to our Vulnerability Reward Program. The entries range from mildly humorous to ones that still attract some debate; it's a pretty good read, even if just for the funny bits.

Just as interestingly, the second part of the site also touches on topics that go well beyond the world of web vulnerability rewards. One page in particular deals with the process of thinking through, and then succinctly and carefully describing, the hypothetical scenario surrounding the exploitation of the bugs we find - especially if the bugs are major, novel, or interesting in any other way.

This process is often shunned as unnecessary; more often than not, I see this discussion missing, or done in a perfunctory way, in conference presentations, research papers, or even the reports produced as the output of commercial penetration tests. That's unfortunate: we tend to be more fallible than we think we are. The seemingly redundant exercise in attack modelling forces us to employ a degree of intellectual rigor that often helps spot fatal leaps in our thought process and correct them early on.

Perhaps the most common fallacy of this sort is the construction of security attacks that fully depend on the exposure to pre-existing risks of a magnitude that is comparable or greater than the danger posed by the new attack. Familiar examples of this trend may include:
  • Attacks on account data that can be performed only if the attacker already has shell-level access to said account. Some of research in this category deals with the ability to extract HTTP cookies by examining process memory or disk, or to backdoor the browser by placing a DLL in a directory not accessible to other UIDs. Other publications may focus on exploiting buffer overflows in non-privileged programs through a route that is unlikely to ever be exposed to the outside world.

  • Attacks that require physical access to brick or otherwise disable a commodity computing device. After all, in almost all cases, having the attacker bring a hammer or wire cutters will work just as well.

  • Web application security issues that are exploitable only against users who are using badly outdated browsers or plugins. Sure, the attack may work - but so will dozens of remote code execution and SOP bypass flaws that the client software is already known to be vulnerable to.

  • New, specific types of attacks that work only against victims who already exhibit behaviors well-understood to carry unreasonable risk - say, the willingness to retype account credentials without looking at the address bar, or to accept and execute unsolicited downloads.

  • Sleight-of-hand vectors that assume, without explaining why, that the attacker can obtain or tamper with some types of secrets (e.g., capability-bearing URLs), but not others (e.g., user's cookies, passwords, server's private SSL keys), despite their apparent similarity.

Some theorists argue that security issues exist independently of exploitation vectors, and that they must be remedied regardless of whether one can envision a probable attack vector. Perhaps this distinction is useful in some contexts - but it is still our responsibility to precisely and unambiguously differentiate between immediate hazards and more abstract thought experiments of that latter kind.

November 07, 2014

Pulling JPEGs out of thin air

This is an interesting demonstration of the capabilities of afl; I was actually pretty surprised that it worked!

$ mkdir in_dir
$ echo 'hello' >in_dir/hello
$ ./afl-fuzz -i in_dir -o out_dir ./jpeg-9a/djpeg

In essence, I created a text file containing just "hello" and asked the fuzzer to keep feeding it to a program that expects a JPEG image (djpeg is a simple utility bundled with the ubiquitous IJG jpeg image library). Of course, my input file does not resemble a valid picture, so it gets immediately rejected by the utility:

$ ./djpeg '../out_dir/queue/id:000000,orig:hello'
Not a JPEG file: starts with 0x68 0x65

Such a fuzzing run would be normally completely pointless: there is essentially no chance that a "hello" could be ever turned into a valid JPEG by a traditional, format-agnostic fuzzer, since the probability that dozens of random tweaks would align just right is astronomically low.

Luckily, afl-fuzz can leverage lightweight assembly-level instrumentation to its advantage - and within a millisecond or so, it notices that although setting the first byte to 0xff does not change the externally observable output, it triggers a slightly different internal code path in the tested app. Equipped with this information, it decides to use that test case as a seed for future fuzzing rounds:

$ ./djpeg '../out_dir/queue/id:000001,src:000000,op:int8,pos:0,val:-1,+cov'
Not a JPEG file: starts with 0xff 0x65

When later working with that second-generation test case, the fuzzer almost immediately notices that setting the second byte to 0xd8 does something even more interesting:

$ ./djpeg '../out_dir/queue/id:000004,src:000001,op:havoc,rep:16,+cov'
Premature end of JPEG file
JPEG datastream contains no image

At this point, the fuzzer managed to synthesize the valid file header - and actually realized its significance. Using this output as the seed for the next round of fuzzing, it quickly starts getting deeper and deeper into the woods. Within several hundred generations and several hundred million execve() calls, it figures out more and more of the essential control structures that make a valid JPEG file - SOFs, Huffman tables, quantization tables, SOS markers, and so on:
$ ./djpeg '../out_dir/queue/id:000008,src:000004,op:havoc,rep:2,+cov'
Invalid JPEG file structure: two SOI markers
$ ./djpeg '../out_dir/queue/id:001005,src:000262+000979,op:splice,rep:2'
Quantization table 0x0e was not defined
$ ./djpeg '../out_dir/queue/id:001282,src:001005+001270,op:splice,rep:2,+cov' >.tmp; ls -l .tmp
-rw-r--r-- 1 lcamtuf lcamtuf 7069 Nov  7 09:29 .tmp

The first image, hit after a day or two on an 4-core system, looks very unassuming: it's a blank grayscale image, 3 pixels wide and 784 pixels tall. But the moment it is discovered, the fuzzer starts using the image as a seed - rapidly producing a wide array of more interesting pics for every new execution path:

Of course, synthesizing a complete image out of thin air is an extreme example, and not necessarily a very practical one. But more prosaically, fuzzers are meant to stress-test every feature of the targeted program. With instrumented, generational fuzzing, lesser-known features (e.g., progressive, black-and-white, or arithmetic-coded JPEGs) can be discovered and locked onto without requiring a giant, high-quality corpus of diverse test cases to seed the fuzzer with.

The cool part of the libjpeg demo is that it works without any special preparation: there is nothing special about the "hello" string, the fuzzer knows nothing about image parsing, and is not designed or fine-tuned to work with this particular library. There aren't even any command-line knobs to turn. You can throw afl-fuzz at many other types of parsers with similar results: with bash, it will write valid scripts; with giflib, it will make GIFs; with fileutils, it will create and flag ELF files, Atari 68xxx executables, x86 boot sectors, and UTF-8 with BOM. In almost all cases, the performance impact of instrumentation is minimal, too.

Of course, not all is roses; at its core, afl-fuzz is still a brute-force tool. This makes it simple, fast, and robust, but also means that certain types of atomically executed checks with a large search space may pose an insurmountable obstacle to the fuzzer; a good example of this may be:

if (strcmp(header.magic_password, "h4ck3d by p1gZ")) goto terminate_now;

In practical terms, this means that afl-fuzz won't have as much luck "inventing" PNG files or non-trivial HTML documents from scratch - and will need a starting point better than just "hello". To consistently deal with code constructs similar to the one shown above, a general-purpose fuzzer would need to understand the operation of the targeted binary on a wholly different level. There is some progress on this in the academia, but frameworks that can pull this off across diverse and complex codebases in a quick, easy, and reliable way are probably still years away.

PS. Several folks asked me about symbolic execution and other inspirations for afl-fuzz; I put together some notes in this doc.

October 24, 2014

PSA: don't run 'strings' on untrusted files (CVE-2014-8485)

Many shell users, and certainly most of the people working in computer forensics or other fields of information security, have a habit of running /usr/bin/strings on binary files originating from the Internet. Their understanding is that the tool simply scans the file for runs of printable characters and dumps them to stdout - something that is very unlikely to put you at any risk.

It is much less known that the Linux version of strings is an integral part of GNU binutils, a suite of tools that specializes in the manipulation of several dozen executable formats using a bundled library called libbfd. Other well-known utilities in that suite include objdump and readelf.

Perhaps simply by the virtue of being a part of that bundle, the strings utility tries to leverage the common libbfd infrastructure to detect supported executable formats and "optimize" the process by extracting text only from specific sections of the file. Unfortunately, the underlying library can be hardly described as safe: a quick pass with afl (and probably with any other competent fuzzer) quickly reveals a range of troubling and likely exploitable out-of-bounds crashes due to very limited range checking, say:

$ wget
$ strings strings-bfd-badptr2
Segmentation fault
strings[24479]: segfault at 4141416d ip 0807a4e7 sp bf80ca60 error 4 in strings[8048000+9a000]
      while (--n_elt != 0)
        if ((++idx)->shdr->bfd_section)                                ← Read from an attacker-controlled pointer
          elf_sec_group (idx->shdr->bfd_section) = shdr->bfd_section;  ← Write to an attacker-controlled pointer
(gdb) p idx->shdr
$1 = (Elf_Internal_Shdr *) 0x41414141

The 0x41414141 pointer being read and written by the code comes directly from that proof-of-concept file and can be freely modified by the attacker to try overwriting program control structures. Many Linux distributions ship strings without ASLR, making potential attacks easier and more reliable - a situation reminiscent of one of the recent bugs in bash.

Interestingly, the problems with the utility aren't exactly new; Tavis spotted the first signs of trouble some nine years ago.

In any case: the bottom line is that if you are used to running strings on random files, or depend on any libbfd-based tools for forensic purposes, you should probably change your habits. For strings specifically, invoking it with the -a parameter seems to inhibit the use of libbfd. Distro vendors may want to consider making the -a mode default, too.

PS. I actually had the libbfd fuzzing job running on this thing!

October 14, 2014

Two more browser memory disclosure bugs (CVE-2014-1580 and #19611cz)

To add several more trophies to afl's pile of image parsing memory disclosure vulnerabilities:
  • MSFA 2014-78 (CVE-2014-1580) fixes another case of uninitialized memory disclosure in Firefox - this time, when rendering truncated GIF images on <canvas>. The bug was reported on September 5 and fixed today. For a convenient test case, check out this page. Rough timeline:

    • September 5: Initial, admittedly brief notification to vendor, including a simple PoC.
    • September 5: Michael Wu confirms the exposure and pinpoints the root cause. Discussion of fixes ensues.
    • September 9: Initial patch created.
    • September 12: Patch approved and landed.
    • October 2: Patch verified by QA.
    • October 13: Fixes ship with Firefox 33.

  • MSRC case #19611cz (MS14-085) is a conceptually similar bug related to JPEG DHT parsing, seemingly leaking bits of stack information in Internet Explorer. This was reported to MSRC on July 2 and hasn't been fixed to date. Test case here. Rough timeline:

    • July 2: Initial, admittedly brief notification to vendor, mentioning the disclosure of uninitialized memory and including a simple PoC.
    • July 3: MSRC request to provide "steps and necessary files to reproduce".
    • July 3: My response, pointing back to the original test case.
    • July 3: MSRC response, stating that they are "unable to determine the nature of what I am reporting".
    • July 3: My response, reiterating the suspected exposure in a more verbose way.
    • July 4: MSRC response from an analyst, confirming that they could reproduce, but also wondering if "his webserver is not loading up a different jpeg just to troll us".
    • July 4: My response stating that I'm not trolling MSRC.
    • July 4: MSRC opens case #19611cz.
    • July 29: MSRC response stating that they are "unable identify a way in which an attacker would be able to propagate the leaked stack data back to themselves".
    • July 29: My response pointing the existence of the canvas.toDataURL() API in Internet Explorer, and providing a new PoC that demonstrates the ability to read back data.
    • September 24: A notification from MSRC stating that the case has been transferred to a new case manager.
    • October 7: My response noting that we've crossed the 90-day mark with no apparent progress made, and that I plan to disclose the bug within a week.
    • October 9: Acknowledgment from MSRC.
Well, that's it. Enjoy!

Fuzzing random programs without execve()

The most common way to fuzz data parsing libraries is to find a simple binary that exercises the interesting functionality, and then simply keep executing it over and over again - of course, with slightly different, randomly mutated inputs in each run. In such a setup, testing for evident memory corruption bugs in the library can be as simple as doing waitpid() on the child process and checking if it ever dies with SIGSEGV, SIGABRT, or something equivalent.

This approach is favored by security researchers for two reasons. Firstly, it eliminates the need to dig into the documentation, understand the API offered by the underlying library, and then write custom code to stress-test the parser in a more direct way. Secondly, it makes the fuzzing process repeatable and robust: the program is running in a separate process and is restarted with every input file, so you do not have to worry about a random memory corruption bug in the library clobbering the state of the fuzzer itself, or having weird side effects on subsequent runs of the tested tool.

Unfortunately, there is also a problem: especially for simple libraries, you may end up spending most of the time waiting for execve(), the linker, and all the library initialization routines to do their job. I've been thinking of ways to minimize this overhead in american fuzzy lop, but most of the ideas I had were annoyingly complicated. For example, it is possible to write a custom ELF loader and execute the program in-process while using mprotect() to temporarily lock down the memory used by the fuzzer itself - but things such as signal handling would be a mess. Another option would be to execute in a single child process, make a snapshot of the child's process memory and then "rewind" to that image later on via /proc/pid/mem - but likewise, dealing with signals or file descriptors would require a ton of fragile hacks.

Luckily, Jann Horn figured a different, much simpler approach, and sent me a patch for afl out of the blue :-) It boils down to injecting a small piece of code into the fuzzed binary - a feat that can be achieved via LD_PRELOAD, via PTRACE_POKETEXT, via compile-time instrumentation, or simply by rewriting the ELF binary ahead of the time. The purpose of the injected shim is to let execve() happen, get past the linker (ideally with LD_BIND_NOW=1, so that all the hard work is done beforehand), and then stop early on in the actual program, before it gets to processing any inputs generated by the fuzzer or doing anything else of interest. In fact, in the simplest variant, we can simply stop at main().

Once the designated point in the program is reached, our shim simply waits for commands from the fuzzer; when it receives a "go" message, it calls fork() to create an identical clone of the already-loaded program; thanks to the powers of copy-on-write, the clone is created very quickly yet enjoys a robust level of isolation from its older twin. Within the child process, the injected code returns control to the original binary, letting it process the fuzzer-supplied input data (and suffer any consequences of doing so). Within the parent, the shim relays the PID of the newly-crated process to the fuzzer and goes back to the command-wait loop.

Of course, when you start dealing with process semantics on Unix, nothing is as easy as it appears at first sight; here are some of the gotchas we had to work around in the code:
  • File descriptor offsets are shared between processes created with fork(). This means that any descriptors that are open at the time that our shim is executed may need to be rewound to their original position; not a significant concern if we are stopping at main() - we can just as well rewind stdin by doing lseek() in the fuzzer itself, since that's where the descriptor originates - but it can become a hurdle if we ever aim at locations further down the line.

  • In the same vein, there are some types of file descriptors we can't fix up. The shim needs to be executed before any access to pipes, character devices, sockets, and similar non-resettable I/O. Again, not a big concern for main().

  • The task of duplicating threads is more complicated and would require the shim to keep track of them all. So, in simple implementations, the shim needs to be injected before any additional threads are spawned in the binary. (Of course, threads are rare in file parser libraries, but may be more common in more heavyweight tools.)

  • The fuzzer is no longer an immediate parent of the fuzzed process, and as a grandparent, it can't directly use waitpid(); there is also no other simple, portable API to get notified about the process' exit status. We fix that simply by having the shim do the waiting, then send the status code to the fuzzer. In theory, we should simply call the clone() syscall with the CLONE_PARENT flag, which would make the new process "inherit" the original PPID. Unfortunately, calling the syscall directly confuses glibc, because the library caches the result of getpid() when initializing - and without a way to make it reconsider, PID-dependent calls such as abort() or raise() will go astray. There is also a library wrapper for the clone() call that does update the cached PID - but the wrapper is unwieldy and insists on messing with the process' stack.

    (To be fair, PTRACE_ATTACH offers a way to temporarily adopt a process and be notified of its exit status, but it also changes process semantics in a couple of ways that need a fair amount of code to fully undo.)
Even with the gotchas taken into account, the shim isn't complicated and has very few moving parts - a welcome relief compared to the solutions I had in mind earlier on. It reads commands via a pipe at file descriptor 198, uses fd 199 to send messages back to parent, and does just the bare minimum to get things sorted out. A slightly abridged verion of the code is:

  /* Phone home and tell the parent that we're OK. */

  pushl $4          /* length    */
  pushl $__afl_temp /* data      */
  pushl $199        /* file desc */
  call  write
  addl  $12, %esp


  /* Wait for parent by reading from the pipe. This will block until
     the parent sends us something. Abort if read fails. */

  pushl $4          /* length    */
  pushl $__afl_temp /* data      */
  pushl $198        /* file desc */
  call  read
  addl  $12, %esp

  cmpl  $4, %eax
  jne   __afl_die

  /* Once woken up, create a clone of our process. */

  call fork

  cmpl $0, %eax
  jl   __afl_die
  je   __afl_fork_resume

  /* In parent process: write PID to pipe, then wait for child. 
     Parent will handle timeouts and SIGKILL the child as needed. */

  movl  %eax, __afl_fork_pid

  pushl $4              /* length    */
  pushl $__afl_fork_pid /* data      */
  pushl $199            /* file desc */
  call  write
  addl  $12, %esp

  pushl $2             /* WUNTRACED */
  pushl $__afl_temp    /* status    */
  pushl __afl_fork_pid /* PID       */
  call  waitpid
  addl  $12, %esp

  cmpl  $0, %eax
  jle   __afl_die

  /* Relay wait status to pipe, then loop back. */

  pushl $4          /* length    */
  pushl $__afl_temp /* data      */
  pushl $199        /* file desc */
  call  write
  addl  $12, %esp

  jmp __afl_fork_wait_loop


  /* In child process: close fds, resume execution. */

  pushl $198
  call  close

  pushl $199
  call  close

  addl  $8, %esp
But, was it worth it? The answer is a resounding "yes": the stop-at-main() logic, already shipping with afl 0.36b, can speed up the fuzzing of many common image libraries by a factor of two or more. It's actually almost unexpected, given that we still keep doing fork(), a syscall with a lingering reputation for being very slow.

The next challenge is devising a way to move the shim down the stream, so that we can also skip any common program initialization steps, such as reading config files - and stop just few instructions shy of the point where the application tries to read the mutated data we are messing with. Jann's original patch has a solution that relies on ptrace() to detect file access; but we've been brainstorming several other ways.

PS. On a related note, some readers might enjoy this.

October 01, 2014

Bash bug: the other two RCEs, or how we chipped away at the original fix (CVE-2014-6277 and '78)

The patch that implements a prefix-based way to mitigate vulnerabilities in bash function exports has been out since last week and has been already picked up by most Linux vendors (plus by Apple). So, here's a quick overview of the key developments along the way, including two really interesting things: proof-of-concept test cases for two serious, previously non-public RCE bugs tracked as CVE-2014-6277 and CVE-2014-6278.

NOTE: If you or your distro maintainers have already deployed Florian's patch, there is no reason for alarm - you are almost certainly not vulnerable to attacks. If you do not have this patch, and instead relied only on the original CVE-2014-6271 fix, you probably need to act now. See this entry for a convenient test case and other tips.

Still here? Good. If you need a refresher, the basic principles of the underlying function export functionality, and the impact of the original bash bug (CVE-2014-6271), are discussed in this blog post. If you have read the earlier post, the original attack disclosed by Stephane Chazelas should be very easy to understand:

HTTP_COOKIE='() { 0; }; echo hi mom;' bash -c :

In essence, the internal parser invoked by bash to process the specially encoded function definitions passed around in environmental variables had a small problem: it continued parsing the code past the end of the function definition itself - and at that point, flat out executed whatever instructions it came across, just as it would do in a normal bash script. Given that the value of certain environmental variables can be controlled by remote attackers in quite a few common settings, this opened up a good chunk of the Internet to attacks.

The original vulnerability was reported privately and kept under embargo for roughly two weeks to develop a fairly conservative fix that modified the parser to bail out in a timely manner and do not parse any trailing commands. As soon as the embargo was lifted, we all found out about the bug and scrambled to deploy fixes. At the same time, a good chunk of the security community reacted with surprise and disbelief that bash is keen to dispatch the contents of environmental variables to a fairly complex syntax parser - so we started poking around.

Tavis was the quickest: he found that you can convince the parser to keep looking for a file name for output redirection past the boundary between the untrusted string accepted from the environment and the actual body of the program that bash is being asked to execute (CVE-2014-7169). His original test case can be simplified at:

HTTP_COOKIE='() { function a a>\' bash -c echo

This example would create an empty file named "echo", instead of executing the requested command. Tavis' finding meant that you would be at risk of remote code execution in situations where attacker-controlled environmental variables are mixed with sanitized, attacker-controlled command-line parameters passed to calls such as system() or popen(). For example, you'd be in trouble if you were doing this in a web app:

system("echo '"+ sanitized_string_without_quotes + "' | /some/trusted/program");

...because the attacker could convince bash to skip over the "echo" command and execute the command given in the second parameter, which happens to be a sanitized string (albeit probably with no ability to specify parameters). On the flip side, this is a fairly specific if not entirely exotic coding pattern - and contrary to some of the initial reports, the bug probably wasn't exploitable in a much more general way.

Chet, the maintainer of bash, started working on a fix to close this specific parsing issue, and released it soon thereafter.

On the same day, Todd Sabin and Florian Weimer have independently bumped into a static array overflow in the parser (CVE-2014-7186). The bug manifested in what seemed to be a non-exploitable crash, trying to dereference a non-attacker-controlled pointer at an address that "by design" should fall well above the end of heap - but was enough to cast even more doubt on the robustness of the underlying code. The test for this problem was pretty simple - you just needed a sequence of here-documents that overflowed a static array, say:

HTTP_COOKIE='() { 0 <<a <<b <<c <<d <<e <<f <<g <<h <<i <<j <<k <<l <<m; }' bash -c :

Florian also bumped into an off-by-one issue with loop parsing (CVE-2014-7187); the proof-of-concept function definition for this is a trivial for loop nested 129 levels deep, but the effect can be only observed under memory access diagnostics tools, and its practical significance is probably low. Nevertheless, all these revelations prompted him to start working on an unofficial but far more comprehensive patch that would largely shield the parser from untrusted strings in normally encountered variables present in the environment.

In parallel to Tavis' and Florian's work, I set up a very straightforward fuzzing job with american fuzzy lop. I seeded it with a rudimentary function definition: () { foo() { foo; }; >bar; } ...and simply let it run with a minimalistic wrapper that took the test case generated by the fuzzer, put it in a variable, and then called execve() to invoke bash.

Although the fuzzer had no clue about the syntax of shell programs, it had the benefit of being able to identify and isolate interesting syntax based on coverage signals, deriving around 1,000 other distinctive test cases from the starting one while "instinctively" knowing not to mess with the essential "() {" prefix. For the first few hours, it kept hitting only the redirect issue originally reported by Todd and the file-creation issue discovered by Tavis - but soon thereafter, it spewed out a new crash illustrated by this snippet of code (CVE-2014-6277):

HTTP_COOKIE='() { x() { _; }; x() { _; } <<a; }' bash -c :

This proved to be a very straightforward use of uninitialized memory: it hit a code path in make_redirect() where one field in a newly-allocated REDIR struct - here_doc_eof - would not be set to any specific value, yet would be treated as a valid pointer later on (somewhere in copy_redirect()).

Now, if bash is compiled with both --enable-bash-malloc and --enable-mem-scramble, the memory returned to make_redirect() by xmalloc() will be set to 0xdf, making the pointer always resolve to 0xdfdfdfdf, and thus rendering the prospect of exploitation far more speculative (essentially depending on whether the stack or any other memory region can be grown by the attacker to overlap with this address). That said, on a good majority of Linux distros, these flags are disabled, and you can trivially get bash to dereference a pointer that is entirely within attacker's control:

HTTP_COOKIE="() { x() { _; }; x() { _; } <<`perl -e '{print "A"x1000}'`; }" bash -c :
bash[25662]: segfault at 41414141 ip 00190d96 sp bfbe6354 error 4 in[110000+191000]

The actual fault happens because of an attempt to copy here_doc_eof to a newly-allocated buffer using a C macro that expands to the following code:

strcpy(xmalloc(1 + strlen(redirect->here_doc_eof)), (redirect->here_doc_eof))

This appears to be exploitable in at least one way: if here_doc_eof is chosen by the attacker to point in the vicinity of the current stack pointer, the apparent contents of the string - and therefore its length - may change between stack-based calls to xmalloc() and strcpy() as a natural consequence of an attempt to pass parameters and create local variables. Such a mid-macro switch will result in an out-of-bounds write to the newly-allocated memory.

A simple conceptual illustration of this attack vector would be: char* result; int len_alloced; main(int argc, char** argv) { /* The offset will be system- and compiler-specific */; char* ptr = &ptr - 9; result = strcpy (malloc(100 + (len_alloced = strlen(ptr))), ptr); printf("requested memory = %d\n" "copied text = %d\n", len_alloced + 1, strlen(result) + 1); } When compiled with the -O2 flag used for bash, on one test system, this produces:

requested memory = 2
copied text = 28

Of course, the result will vary from system to system, but the general consequences of this should be fairly evident. The issue is also made worse by the fact that only relatively few distributions were building bash as a position-independent executable that could be fully protected by ASLR.

(In addition to this vector, there is also a location in dispose_cmd.c that calls free() on the pointer under some circumstances, but I haven't really really spent a lot of time trying to develop a functioning exploit for the '77 bug for reasons that should be evident in the text that follows... well, just about now.)

It has to be said that there is a bit less glamour to such a low-level issue that still requires you to go through some mental gymnastics to be exploited in a portable way. Luckily, the fuzzer kept going, and few hours later, isolated a test case that, after minimization, yielded this gem (CVE-2014-6278):

HTTP_COOKIE='() { _; } >_[$($())] { echo hi mom; id; }' bash -c :

I am... actually not entirely sure what happens here. A sequence of nested $... statements within a redirect appears to cause the parser to bail out without properly resetting its state, and puts it in the mood for executing whatever comes next. The test case works as-is with bash 4.2 and 4.3, but not with more ancient releases; this is probably related to changes introduced few years ago in bash 4.2 patch level 12 (xparse_dolparen()), but I have not investigated if earlier versions are patently not vulnerable or simply require different syntax.

The CVE-2014-6278 payload allows straightforward "put-your-commands-here" remote code execution on systems that are protected only with the original patch - something that we were worried about for a while, and what prompted us to ask people to update again over the past few days.

Well, that's it. I kept the technical details of the last two findings embargoed for a while to give people some time to incorporate Florian's patch and avoid the panic associated with the original bug - but at this point, given the scrutiny that the code is under, the ease of discovering the problems with off-the-shelf open-source tools, and the availability of adequate mitigations, the secrecy seems to have outlived its purpose.

Any closing thoughts? Well, I'm not sure there's a particular lesson to be learnt from the entire story. There's perhaps one thing - it would probably have been helpful if the questionable nature of the original patch was spotted by any of the notified vendors during the two-week embargo period. That said, I wasn't privy to these conversations - and hindsight is always 20/20.